### paper reading

尽管TextCNN能够在很多任务里面能有不错的表现，但CNN有个最大问题是固定 filter_size 的视野，一方面无法建模更长的序列信息，另一方面 filter_size 的超参调节也很繁琐。CNN本质是做文本的特征表达工作，而自然语言处理中更常用的是递归神经网络（RNN, Recurrent Neural Network），能够更好的表达上下文信息。具体在文本分类任务中，Bi-directional RNN（实际使用的是双向LSTM）从某种意义上可以理解为可以捕获变长且双向的的 "n-gram" 信息。

RNN算是在自然语言处理领域非常一个标配网络了，在序列标注/命名体识别/seq2seq模型等很多场景都有应用，Recurrent Neural Network for Text Classification with Multi-Task Learning文中介绍了RNN用于分类问题的设计，下图LSTM用于网络结构原理示意图，示例中的是利用最后一个词的结果直接接全连接层softmax输出了。

### 关于解决RNN无法并行化，计算效率低的问题

Factorization tricks for LSTM networks

- We present two simple ways of reducing the number of parameters and accelerating the training of large Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks: the first one is "matrix factorization by design" of LSTM matrix into the product of two smaller matrices, and the second one is partitioning of LSTM matrix, its inputs and states into the independent groups. Both approaches allow us to train large LSTM networks significantly faster to the near state-of the art perplexity while using significantly less RNN parameters.

Outrageously Large Neural Networks: The Sparsely-Gated Mixture-of-Experts Layer

- The capacity of a neural network to absorb information is limited by its number of parameters. Conditional computation, where parts of the network are active on a per-example basis, has been proposed in theory as a way of dramatically increasing model capacity without a proportional increase in computation. In practice, however, there are significant algorithmic and performance challenges. In this work, we address these challenges and finally realize the promise of conditional computation, achieving greater than 1000x improvements in model capacity with only minor losses in computational efficiency on modern GPU clusters. We introduce a Sparsely-Gated Mixture-of-Experts layer (MoE), consisting of up to thousands of feed-forward sub-networks. A trainable gating network determines a sparse combination of these experts to use for each example. We apply the MoE to the tasks of language modeling and machine translation, where model capacity is critical for absorbing the vast quantities of knowledge available in the training corpora. We present model architectures in which a MoE with up to 137 billion parameters is applied convolutionally between stacked LSTM layers. On large language modeling and machine translation benchmarks, these models achieve significantly better results than state-of-the-art at lower computational cost.